Selected Publications

 

Boneh, Y, Sagy, A, Reches, Z., 2013, Frictional strength and wear-rate of carbonate faults during high-velocity, steady-state slidingEarth and Planetary Science Letters 381, 127–137.

 

Chen,X.,Madden,A.S.,Bickmore,B.R.,Reches,Z.,2013, Dynamic weakening by nanoscale smoothing during high velocity fault slip.. Geology41,739–742,http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/G34169.1.

 

Liao, Z., and Reches Z, 2012, Modeling Dynamic-Weakening and Dynamic-Strengthening of Granite in High-Velocity. . Chapter in “Earthquake Research and Analysis - New Advances in Seismology”, open access book

 

Busetti, S., Mish, K., & Reches, Z., 2012, Damage and plastic deformation of reservoir rocks: Part 1. Damage fracturing.. AAPG Bulletin, 96(9), 1687-1709.

 

Busetti, S., Mish, K., Hennings, P., & Reches, Z., 2012, Damage and plastic deformation of reservoir rocks: Part 2. Propagation of a hydraulic fracture.. AAPG Bulletin, 96(9), 1711-1732.

 

Chang, JC, Lockner, DA, and Reches, Z, 2012, Rapid Acceleration Leads to Rapid Weakening in Earthquake-Like Laboratory Experiments.. Science, V. 338, No. 6103 pp. 101-105. DOI: 10.1126/science.1221195.

 

Heesakkers, V., Murphy, S., Lockner, DA, and Reches, Z, 2011, Earthquake Rupture at Focal Depth: Part I. Structure of the Pretorius Fault, TauTona Mine, South Africa.. Pure & Applied Geophysics, V 168, p. 2395-2425.

 

Heesakkers, V., Murphy, S., and Reches, Z, 2011, Earthquake Rupture at Focal Depth: Part II. The 2004 M2.2 earthquake along the Pretorius fault. . Pure & Applied Geophysics, V 168, p. 2427-2449.

 

Reches Z and Lockner DA, 2010, Fault weakening and earthquake instability by powder lubrication. Nature, 467, p 452-456, 10.1038/nature09348.

 

Sammis CG, DA Lockner, Z Reches, The Role of Adsorbed Water on the Friction of a Layer of Submicron Particles. Pure & Applied Geophysics, V 168, p. 2325-2334.

 

Rubinstein SM, Barel I, Reches Z, Braun OM, Urbakh M, Fineberg J, Slip sequences in laboratory experiments resulting from inhomogeneous shear as analogs of earthquakes associated with a fault edge. Pure & Applied Geophysics, V 168, p 2151-2166.

 

Lucier AM, Zoback MD, Heesakkers V, Reches Z, Murphy SK, Constraining the far-field in situ stress state near a deep South African gold mine, Int. J Rock Mech. Mining Sci. V. 46, No 3, 555-567.

 

Rubinstein, SM, Cohen, G, Fineberg, J, Reches Z, 2009, Slip sequences in laboratory experiments as analogous to earthquakes associated with fault edges. In Hatzor et al. (eds) Meso-Scale Shear Physics in Earthquake and Landslide Mechanics, 2009, pp 17-24, CRC press, Balkema, 284 p.

 

Hamiel, Y.,  Lyakhovsky, V., Katz, O., Fialko Y, Reches, Z., 2009, Damage rheology and stable versus unstable fracturing of rocks. In Hatzor et al. (eds) Meso-Scale Shear Physics in Earthquake and Landslide Mechanics, 2009, pp 133-144, CRC press, Balkema, 284 p.

 

Reches Z. and Ito H., 2007, Scientific Drilling of Active Faults: Past and Future. In Harms, U., Koeberl, C., and  Zoback, MD. (Eds.) Scientific Drillings Continental Scientific Drilling A Decade of Progress, and Challenges for the Future. Springer, p. 235-258.

 

Hamiel, Y., Katz, O.,  Lyakhovsky, V., Reches, Z., 2006, Damage rheology and its application to granite failure. Geoph. J. Inter., paper doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2006.03126, 1-12 p.

 

Reches Z, DAFSAM and NELSAM teams, 2006, Building a Natural Earthquake Laboratory at Focal Depth (DAFSAM-NELSAM Project, South Africa). Scientific Drilling, 3, 30-33.

 

Sagy, A., Cohen G., Z. Reches, and J. Fineberg, 2006. Dynamic fracture of granular material under quasi-static loading. J. Geophy. Res. V. 111, B04406.

Katz O., and Reches Z., 2005, Reverse drag: post-failure deformation along existing faults. Israel J Earth Sciences, 55, 43-53.

Sagy A. and Z. Reches, 2006. Joint intensity in sedimentary rocks: The unsaturated, saturated, supersaturated, and clustered classes. Israel J Earth Sci. 55, 33-42  

Wilson B., T.A. Dewers, Z. Reches, and J. Brune, 2005, Texture and Energetics of Gouge Powder from Earthquake Rupture Zones . Nature, 434, 749-752.

Reches Z. and T.A. Dewers, 2004, Gouge Formation by Dynamic Pulverization During Earthquakes. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 235, 361-374.

Sagy A., Fineberg J.,and Reches Z., 2006, Shatter Cones: Branched, Rapid Fractures Formed by Shock Impact. J. Geophy. Res. 109, (B10) 209

Katz O., and Reches Z., 2004, Microfracturing, damage and failure of brittle granites. J. Geophy. Res. 109 (B1), pp. 1206.   

Muhuri, S. K., T. A. Dewers, T.E. Scott (Jr), and Z. Reches, 2003, Interseismic fault strengthening and earthquake slip
instability: friction or cohesion?
. Geology, 31, 881–884.

Sagy, A., Z. Reches, and A. Agnon, 2003, Hierarchic three-dimensional structure and slip partitioning in the western Dead Sea pull-apart. Tectonics, v. 22 (1).   

Katz O., Reches Z. and Baer G., 2003, Faults and their associated host rock deformation: Structure of small faults in a quartz-syenite body, southern Israel. J Structural Geology, 25, 1675-1689.  

Katz O., and Reches Z, 2002, Pre-failure damage, time-dependent creep and strength variations of a brittle granite. Proceedings 5th Int. Conf. on Analysis of Discontinuous Deformation, Ben-Gurion Univ., Balkema, Rotterdam. p. 189-194.

Sagy A., Reches Z. and Fineberg J., 2002, Dynamic fracture by large extraterrestrial impacts as the origin of shatter-cones. (Nature, 418, 310-313). For this paper Amir Sagy received the Ramsay Medal, 2003, by The Tectonic Study Group, UK (best publication arising directly from a PhD project in the field of tectonics and structural geology).

Bartov Y., M. Stein, Y. Enzel, A. Agnon and Z. Reches, 2002, Lake Levels and Sequence Stratigraphy of Lake Lisan, the Late Pleistocene Precursor of the Dead Sea, Quaternary Research, v. 57, 9-21.

Dor, O., Z. Reches, & G. van Aswagen, 2001, Fault zones associated with the Matjhabeng earthquake, 1999, South Africa. Rockburst and Seismicity in Mines, RaSiM5 (Proceedings), South African Inst. Of Mining and Metallurgy, pp. 109-112. 

Sagy, A., Z. Reches, and I Roman, 2001, Dynamic Fracturing: Field and Experimental Observations, J. of Structural Geology, 23 1223-1239.

Katz, O., Reches, Z., and J-C. Roegiers, 2000, Evaluation of mechanical rock properties using a Schmidt Hammer, Int. J. of Rock Mech. & Min. Sci., 37, 723-728.

 Reches, Z., 1999, Mechanisms of slip nucleation during earthquakes, Earth & Palnetary Science Letters, 170, 475-486. 

 
Lioubashevski, O., Hamiel, Y., Agnon, A. Reches, Z., and J. Fineberg, 1999, Oscillons and propagating solitary waves in a vertically vibrated colloidal suspension, Phy. Rev. Lett., E, 83, 3190-3193. 

 
Reches, Z., 1998, Tensile fracturing of stiff rock layers under triaxial compressive stress states 3rd NARMS, Mexcio, June, 1998, Int. J. of Rock Mech. & Min. Sci. 35: 4-5, Paper No. 70. 

 
Lyakhovsky V., Reches Z., Weinberger R., Scott T. E., 1997, Non-linear elastic behavior of damaged rocks. Geophys. J. International, vol. 130, 157-166. 

Reches, Z., and Zoback, M. D., 1996, Mechanical modelling of a fault-fold system with application to the Loma Prieta earthquake, 1989, in Tomas Holzer (editor) "The Loma Prieta California earthquake of October 17, 1989", US Geological Survey Professional Paper #1550, Vol. 1, Ch. H .

 
Agnon, A., and Reches, Z., 1995, Distribution and migration of extension under frictional rheology: rotation of active normal faults, Tectonophysics, v. 239-254. 

 
Reches, Z., and Eidelman A., 1995, Drag along faults, Tectonophysics, v. 247, 145-156. 

 
Baer, G., Beyth, M., and Reches, Z., 1994, Dike emplacement into fractured basement rocks, Timna igneous complex, Israel, J. Geophysical Res., v. 99, p. 24,039-24,050. 

Reches Z., G. Schubert and C. Anderson, 1994, Modelling of periodic great earthquakes on the San Andreas fault: effects of nonlinear crustal rheology, J. Geophysical Res., v. 99, p. 21,983-22,000. 

Reches, Z., and Lockner, D. A., 1994, The nucleation and growth of faults in brittle rocks, J. Geophysical Res., v. 99, p. 18,159-18,173. 

 
Scott T.E., Jr., Ma Q., Reches Z.,and Roegiers J.-C., 1994, Acoustic tomographic difference imaging of dynamic stress fields, Proceeding EUROCK94, Amsterdam, September, 1994. 

Weinberger R., Reches Z., Scott T.E., and Eidelman A., 1994, Tensile strength of rocks in four-point beam tests, in Nelson P. and Laubach (eds), Rock mechanics models and measurements challenges for industry, Proc. 1st North Am. Rock Mechanics Symp., Austin, Balkema, Rotterdam, p. 435-442. 

 
Scott T.E., Jr., Ma Q., Roegiers J.-C., and Reches Z., 1994, Dynamic stress mapping using ultrasonic tomography, in Nelson P. and Laubach (eds), Rock mechanics models and measurements challenges for industry, Proc. 1st North Am. Rock Mechanics Symp., Austin, Balkema, Rotterdam, p. 427-434. 

 
Eidelman, A., and Reches, Z., 1993, Fractured pebbles-A new stress indicator-A reply, Geology, 21, 187-188.

 

Reches, Z., Baer, G. and Hatzor Y., 1992, Constraints on the strength of the upper crust from stress inversion of fault slip measurements, J. Geophysical Res., 97, 12,481-12,493. 


Lockner, A. D., Reches, Z., and Moore, D. E., 1992, Microcrack Interaction Leading to shear fracture, in Tillerson and Wawersik (editors), Rock Mechanics Proceedings of the 33rd US Symposium, P. 807-816, A.A. Balkema


Eidelman, A., and Reches, Z., 1992, Fractured pebbles-A new stress indicator, Geology, 20, 301-304. 


Baer, G., and Reches, Z., 1991, Mechanics of emplacement and tectonic implications of the Ramon dike systems, Israel, J. Geophysical Res. 96, 11,895-11,910. 


Reches, Z., 1990, The stress states associated with slip along clusters of faults: Application to the aftershocks of Morgan Hill earthquake, 1984 and Kalamata earthquake, 1986, in Rossmanith (editor) Mechanics of Jointed and Faulted Rock, p. 221-228, A.A. Balkema


Gardosh, M., Reches, Z., and Garfunkel, Z., 1990, Holocene tectonic deformation along the western margins of the Dead Sea, Tectonophysics, 180, 123-137. 


Hatzor, Y., and Reches, Z., 1990, Structure and paleostresses in the Gilboa' region, margins of the central Dead Sea rift, Tectonophysics, 180, 87-100. 


Baer, G., and Reches, Z., 1989, Doming mechanisms and structural development of two domes in Ramon, southern Israel, Tectonophysics, 166, 293-315. 


Reches, Z., and J. Fink, 1988, The mechanism of the emplacement of the Inyo Dike, Long Valley, California, J. Geophysical Res., 93, 4321-4335. 


Reches, Z., 1988, Evolution of fault patterns in clay experiments, Tectonophysics, 145, 141-156. 


Reches, Z. and G. Schubert, 1987, The tectonic deformation of the Arabian plate since the Miocene, Tectonics, 6, 707-725. 

Reches, Z., Erez, Y. and Garfunkel Z., 1987, Sedimentary and tectonic features in the northwestern Gulf of Elat, Israel, Tectonophysics, 141, 169-180. 

Reches, Z., 1987, Mechanical aspects of pull-apart basins and push-up swells with applications to the Dead Sea transform, Tectonophysics, 141, 75-88. 

Baer, G. and Z. Reches, 1987, Flow patterns of magma in dikes, Makhtesh Ramon, Israel, Geology, 15, 569-572. 

Reches, Z., 1986, The development of a fracture network by shear: Experimental results, Proc. of 27 U.S. Symp. on Rock Mechanics, June, 1986, Alabama, 141-145. 

Reches, Z., 1986, Networks of shear faults in the field and in experiments, in Jaeger Z. and Engelman B. (editors), Proc. of 3F conf., Neve Ilan, Jan. 1986, Ann. of Israel Physics Soc., 42- 52. 

Fink, J. and Z. Reches, 1985, Diagenetic density inversions and the deformation of hallow marine chert beds in Israel (reply). Sedimentology, 32, 461-464. 

Eyal, Y. and Z. Reches, 1983, Tectonic analysis of the Dead Sea Rift region since the Late-Cretaceous based on mesostructures, Tectonics, 2, 167-185. 

Fink, J. and Z. Reches, 1983, Diagenetic density inversions and the deformation of shallow marine chert beds in Israel, Sedimentology, 30, 261-271. 

Reches, Z., 1983, Faulting of rocks in three dimensional strain fields II. Theoretical analysis, Tectonophysics, 95, 133-156. 

Reches, Z. and J. H. Dieterich, 1983, Faulting of rocks in three dimensional strain fields, I. Failure of rocks in polyaxial, servo-control experiments, Tectonophysics, 95, 11-132. 

Aydin, A. and Z. Reches, 1982, Number and orientation of fault sets in the field and in experiments, Geology, 10, 107-112. 

Reches, Z., D.F. Hoexter and F. Hirsch, 1981, The structure of a monocline in the Syrian Arc system, Middle East-surface and subsurface analysis, J. Petroleum Geol., 3, 413-425. 

Reches, Z. and D. F. Hoexter, 1981, Holocene seismic and tectonic activity in the Dead Sea area, Tectonophysics, 80, 235-254. 

Reches, Z., 1979, Deformation of a foliated medium, Tectonophysics., 57, 119-129. 

Reches, Z., 1978, Analysis of faulting in three dimensional strain field, Tectonophysics, 47, 109-129. 

Reches, Z. and A. M. Johnson, 1978, The development of monoclines, Part II: Mechanical analysis of monoclines. in Laramide Folding Associated with Basement Block Faulting in the Rocky Mountains Region, edited by V. Matthews, Geol. Soc. Am. Mem. 151, 278-311. 

Reches, Z., 1978, The development of monoclines,Part I: Structure of the Palisades Creek branch of the east Kaibab monocline, Grand Canyon, Arizona, in Laramide Folding Associated with Basement Block Faulting in the Rocky Mountain Region, edited by V. Matthews, Geol. Soc. Am. Mem.151, 235-278. 

Reches, Z. and A. M. Johnson, 1976, A theory of concentric, kink, and sinusoidal folding and of monoclinal flexuring of compressible elastic multilayers, VI. Asymmetric folding and monoclinal kinking, Tectonophysics, 35, 295-334. 

Reches, Z., 1976, Analysis of joints in two monoclines in Israel, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 8,-1662. 


MECHANISMS OF SLIP NUCLEATION DURING EARTHQUAKES
by Ze'ev Reches, Hebrew University, Jerusalem
ABSTRACT

Slip nucleation during earthquakes is apparently analogous to rupture nucleation within an intact rock sample subjected to triaxial loading. The observations indicate that both these nucleation processes initiate within a relatively small volume and in both the slip propagates unstably along a quasi-planar surface. In both processes a single, pre-existing, shear fracture cannot nucleate the large-scale slip, and in both a "process zone" that includes several interacting fractures in a small volume are required to initiate the unstable slip. Both processes require rupture of intact rocks, generate complex fracture geometry, and are associated with intense energy-release-rate during slip. Recent observations and analyses are used to correlate rupture nucleation in laboratory tests with nucleation events of large earthquakes. It is proposed that earthquake nucleation occurs by the interaction among multiple fractures within a small volume that develops into unstable yielding of the healed fault zone. Keywords: earthquake, nucleation, instability, friction, rock mechanics

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MECHANICAL MODELING OF A FAULT-FOLD SYSTEM, WITH APPLICATION TO THE LOMA PRIETA EARTHQUAKE, 1989
by Ze'ev Reches, Hebrew University, Jerusalem; and Mark D. Zoback, Stanford University
ABSTRACT

Somefeatures odeformation accompanying the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake resemble that associated with earthquakes along deep-seated reverse faults. These featinclude ground breakage, surfacedeformation, aftershock distribution, and a component of reverse slip deduced from geodetic and strong ground motion data. To explore these deformational features of the earthquake, we derive an analytical model for the deformation of a layered sequence due to slip along a deep-seated fault. Our model includes horizontal elastic layers, using configurations withas many as nine layers of different shear moduli. We applied this layered model to the Loma Prieta region and found that the better solutions are for five-layer sequences in which the shear moduli of the layers increase downward. The model predicts the distribution of aftershocks in the upper 5 km better than a model with uniform rheology. The model also accurately predicts the location of the horizontal extension zone in the Summit Road area and the horizontal-compression zone in the northeastern foothills of the Santa Cruz Mountains.

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DRAG ALONG FAULTS
by Ze'ev Reches and Amir Eidelman, Hebrew University, Jerusalem
ABSTRACT

The bending of lines at the proximity of faults, known as fault-drag, is examined here by analytical and numerical (finite-elements) models. Frequently, the bent lines are convex toward the direction of the fault motion, and this convexity is known as "normal-drag", whereas an inverted sense of convexity is known as "reverse-drag". We first analyze the slip along a short fault embedded in a large elastic or elastic-plastic plate. The analysis indicates that reverse-drag is the expected drag along the short fault, and that the normal-drag reflects continuous deformation which preceded the faulting. Models with faults of high friction coefficient display smaller drag than frictionless faults; this suggests that the drag intensity is not simply related to the frictional resistance. We also model the drag along a normal fault with curved, "anti-listric" surface embedded in an elastic-plastic medium; this model also indicates that the reverse-drag is the prevailing one. The predictions of the present models agree well with previous experimental results of slip along short faults in wax and plasticene samples. Finally, we show that the normal-drag observed in association with long faults reflects prefaulting deformation which is concentrated within a narrow shear zone.

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MODELING OF PERIODIC GREAT EARTHQUAKES ON THE SAN ANDREAS FAULT: EFFECTS OF NONLINEAR CRUSTAL RHEOLOGY
by Ze'ev Reches, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Gerald Schubert, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, and Charles Anderson, Los Alamos National Laboratory
ABSTRACT

We analyze the cycle of great earthquakes along the San Andreas fault with a finite element numerical model of deformation in a crust with a nonlinear viscoelastic rheology. The viscous component of deformation has an effective viscosity that depends exponentially on the inverse absolute temperature and nonlinearly on the shear stress; the elastic deformation is linear. Crustal thickness and temperature are constrained by seismic and heat flow data for California. The models are for anti-plane strain in a 25-km-thick crustal layer having a very long, vertical strike- slip fault; the crustal block extends 250 km to either side of the fault. During the earthquake cycle that lasts 160 years, a constant plate velocity Vp/2=17.5 mm/yr is applied to the base of the crust and to the vertical end of the crustal block 250 km away from the fault. The upper half of the fault is locked during the interseismic period, while its lower half slips at the constant plate velocity. The locked part of the fault is moved abruptly 2.8 m every 160 yr to simulate great earthquakes. The results are sensitive to crustal rheology. Models with quartzite-like rheology display profound transient stages in the velocity, displacement and stress fields. The predicted transient zone extends about 3-4 times the crustal thickness on each side of the fault, significantly wider than the zone of deformation in elastic models. Models with diabase-like rheology behave similarly to elastic models and exhibit no transient stages. The model predictions are compared with geodetic observations of fault-parallel velocities in northern and central California and local rates of shear strain along the San Andreas fault. The observations are best fit by models which are 10 to 100 times less viscous than a quartzite-like rheology. Since the lower crust in California is composed of intermediate to mafic rocks, then the present result suggests that the in-situ viscosity of the crustal rock is orders of magnitude less the rock viscosity determined in the laboratory.<br)

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NUCLEATION AND GROWTH OF FAULTS IN BRITTLE ROCKS
by Ze'ev Reches, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, and David A. Lockner, U.S. Geological Survey
ABSTRACT

We present a model for the nucleation and growth of faults in intact brittle rocks. The model is based on recent experiments that utilize acoustic emission events to monitor faulting processes in Westerly granite. In these experiments a fault initiated at one site without significant preceding damage. The fault propagated in its own plane with a leading zone of intense microcracking. We propose here that faults in granites nucleate and propagate by the interaction of tensile microcracks in the following style. During early loading tensile microcracking occurs randomly, with no significant crack interaction, and with no relation to the location or inclination of the future fault. As the load reaches the ultimate strength, nucleation initiates when a few tensile microcracks interact and enhance the dilation of each other. They create a process zone that is a region with closely spaced microcracks. In highly loaded rock, the stress field associated with microcrack dilation forces crack interaction to spread in an unstable manner and recursive geometry. Thus the process zone propagates unstably into the intact rock. As the process zone lengthens its central part yields by shear and a fault nucleus forms. The fault nucleus grows in the wake of the propagating process zone. The stress fields associated with shear along the fault further enhances the microcrack dilation in the process zone. The analysis shows that faultsprin their own plane, making an angle of 20ø-30ø with the maximum compression axis. This model provides a physical basis to "internal friction", the empirical parameter of the Coulomb criterion.
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Four-Point Beam Experiments Under Confining Pressure: Tensile Strength and Tensile Elastic Moduli of Three Sedimentary Rocks
by Ram Weinberger, Ze'ev Reches, Thurman E. Scott, and Amir Eidelman School of Geology and Geophysics, University of Oklahoma, OK
ABSTRACT

The strength and elastic properties of three sedimentary rocks were measured with a four- point beam device. The device was placed inside a pressure vessel and the beam samples were deformed by combined application of bending moment and confining pressure. The tensile and compressive stresses within the beams were determined from the measured loads and the axial strains at the top and bottom of the beam; for the stress calculations we used the formulation of Yokoyama (1988). The experiments were conducted with Tennessee sandstone (8 tests), Indiana limestone (8 tests), and Berea sandstone (4 tests). The compressive Young modulus for Tennessee sandstone ranges from ÷ 19,000 MPa in tests without confinement t40,000 MPa for a test under 50 MPa confining pressure. The compressive Young modulus is 26,600 MPa to 34,900 MPa for Indiana limestone, and 10,000 MPa to 27,000 MPa for Berea sandstone (with some dependence on the confining pressure). The tensile Young modulus is nonlinear and best represented by st = A etB, where st , et are the tensile stress and tensile strain anA, B are co. ranges from 0.56 for tests without confinement to 0.85-0.9 for tests with confinement of 10 MPa or more. The tensile strength depeonly slightly on the confining pressuand it is -8.8 ñ 3.1 MPa for Tennessee sandstone, -5.1 ñ 2.5 MPa for Indiana limestone and -6.9 ñ 2.4 MPa for Berea sandstone (tensile stress is negative). The yileding envelope for the tensile regime appears in good agreement with Griffith's envelope .
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CONSTRAINTS ON THE STRENGTH OF THE UPPER CRUST FROM STRESS INVERSION OF FAULT SLIP DATA
by Ze'ev Reches, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Gidon Baer and Yossef Hatzor, Geological Survey of Israel
ABSTRACT

The coefficient of friction of small faults in the field are estimated here by stress inversion of fault slip data. The small faults that were measured in Israel and the Grand Canyon, Arizona, are considered as representing natural friction experiments. The stresses associated with the faulting are determined by a stress inversion method which incorporates the Coulomb failure criterion [Reches, 1987]. The coefficients of friction determined for 27 fault clusters in limestone, sandstone, and basalt range from 0.0 to 1.3 with mean value of 0.58 ñ 0.37. These values are in general agreement with the friction of 0.6-0.85 determined from laboratory experiments. The magnitudes of the calculated principal stresses are compared with in situ stress measurements in similar tectonic environments.
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